Pandemic Preparation Plan
Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College
(Updated March, 2020)
Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College
Pandemic Preparation Plan
Table of Contents
Overview and March 2020 Situation Summary, COVID-19
Purpose of Plan
Continuity of Operations
Pandemic Preparation Plan Maintenance
General Risk Reduction Strategies
Psychological First Aid
Appendix A, Website Links
Appendix B, Federal, State and Local Planning for Pandemic
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In 2006, the Office of the Chancellor for Minnesota State Colleges and Universities instructed all MN State locations to develop a plan to respond to the potential effects created by a pandemic related to Avian Flu. Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College (FDLTCC) met this directive by developing a pandemic preparation plan that will meet the needs of situations related to most infectious pandemic circumstances in the future.
In response to MN State system instructions, FDLTCC created the Pandemic Planning Committee (PPC). The PPC was established to ensure that appropriate preparations and pandemic response planning was developed. The PPC has been identified as the College’s authority responsible for the activation of the Pandemic Preparation Plan.
• The PPC collaborates with local emergency response and public health planners in the establishment and maintenance of the FDLTCC Pandemic Preparation Plan to ensure coordination of response and communication with the representative agencies.
• The PPC reviews the Pandemic Preparation Plan annually to ensure the response planning and information is current and applicable.
• The PPC considers the provision of sufficient and accessible infectious prevention supplies. (e.g., antiviral soap and disinfectant, tissues, masks, etc.)
• The PPC will communicate with faculty to monitor and communicate significant increases in absenteeism among students and faculty. Notable increases in absenteeism will be reported to the:
o College President,
o Carlton County Public Health Services,
o MN State Office of the Chancellor, Fire and Safety Center.
This Pandemic Preparation Plan was written for Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College by members of the Pandemic Planning Committee. It is the intent of this plan to identify important actions the College needs for the preparation of, and response to, an influenza or other infectious outbreak resulting in college interruption. Regular updating of this plan will be required to ensure that the Pandemic Preparation Plan effectively addresses the specific needs of the college.
March 2020 Situation Summary
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
CDC is responding to a pandemic of respiratory disease spreading from person-to-person caused by a novel (new) coronavirus. The disease has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated “COVID-19”). This situation poses a serious public health risk. The federal government is working closely with state, local, tribal, and territorial partners, as well as public health partners, to respond to this situation. COVID-19 can cause mild to severe illness; most severe illness occurs in older adults.
On March 11, 2020 the World Health Organization publicly characterized COVID-19 as a pandemic.
Influenza is a highly contagious respiratory virus that is responsible for annual epidemics in the United States and other countries. According to the World Health Organization, “An influenza pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus appears against which the human population has no immunity, resulting in several simultaneous epidemics worldwide with enormous numbers of deaths and illness. With the increase in global transport and communications, as well as urbanization and overcrowded conditions, epidemics due to the new influenza virus are likely to quickly take hold around the world.” During an influenza pandemic the level of illness and death from influenza would likely increase dramatically worldwide.
The impact of any viral pandemic on the local economy and business processes has the potential to be devastating. Considering the possibility of high levels of illness and death, as well as significant disruption to society and our economy, planning for the next pandemic imperative.
COVID 19 Risk Assessment
(March 26, 2020 CDC webpage: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/summary.html#risk-assessment)
Risk depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people; the severity of resulting illness; and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccines or medications that can treat the illness) and the relative success of these. In the absence of vaccine or treatment medications, nonpharmaceutical interventions become the most important response strategy. These are community interventions that can reduce the impact of disease.
The risk from COVID-19 to Americans can be broken down into risk of exposure versus risk of serious illness and death.
Risk of exposure:
• The immediate risk of being exposed to this virus is still low for most Americans, but as the outbreak expands, that risk will increase. Cases of COVID-19 and instances of community spread are being reported in a growing number of states.
• People in places where ongoing community spread of the virus that causes COVID-19 has been reported are at elevated risk of exposure, with the level of risk dependent on the location.
• Healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 are at elevated risk of exposure.
• Close contacts of persons with COVID-19 also are at elevated risk of exposure.
• Travelers returning from affected international locations where community spread is occurring also are at elevated risk of exposure, with level of risk dependent on where they traveled.
Risk of Severe Illness:
Early information out of China, where COVID-19 first started, shows that some people are at higher risk of getting very sick from this illness. This includes:
• Older adults, with risk increasing by age.
• People who have serious chronic medical conditions like:
o Heart disease
o Lung disease
Potential Pandemic Effects:
• High percentages of the population may be unable to work for days to weeks.
• Limited numbers of people and expertise available
• Limited emergency and essential services (fire, police, and medical)
• Mandatory school closures
• Delays in supplies, shipments and mail delivery
• Delays in outside service work
• Disruption of utilities repairs and loss of utility services.
Institutional Operational Effects:
• Large numbers of staff absent, difficult to maintain school operations
• Loss of services from suppliers (e.g. food service, other essential products)
• Large numbers of student absenteeism
• Operational breakdowns of facility and services
• Disruption of residence hall accommodations
Purpose of this Plan
The purpose of this plan is to assist in managing the impact of viral pandemics at Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College. The focus of this plan is based on four main strategies:
1. Reducing spread of the virus within FDLTCC facilities,
2. Sustaining educational and activity functions,
3. Sustaining facility operational functions,
4. Coordination with other governmental agencies and authority.
The plan addresses the following management elements for Pandemic Preparation Plan response which include the following:
• Proactive education of students, faculty and staff about the virus
• Actions to reduce the spread of the virus
• Reducing risk of infected persons (students, staff, visitors) entering the facility
• Social distancing of students to reduce person-to-person interactions (i.e. postponing school events or activities)
• Cleaning and disinfecting of facilities
• Handling students and employees who become ill at school and those who may have been exposed to the virus at school
• Receiving incoming communication from external sources regarding the pandemic virus
• Preparing and distributing internal and external campus communication
• Providing emotional and psychological comfort (psychological first aid)
• Information regarding provision and use of influenza vaccine, antiviral medication, and antibiotics
• Continue providing essential educational functions:
o Identification of essential staff and functions
o Student and faculty absenteeism contingency plan
o Communication with students and faculty
• Maintain essential facility operational functions:
o Identification of essential staff and functions
o Facility Maintenance absenteeism contingency plan
• Continue Campus Services and Operations
o Maintaining payroll, human resources and support business functions
o Ordering and stocking of essential supplies and support services
o Student and staff absenteeism contingency plan
o Interruption and failure of critical equipment operation preparation
o Communication with staff
o Education for employees
Continuity of Operations
Administrative staff will ensure that core functions, people and skills have been identified and strategies are in place to manage these prior to the pandemic.
Administrative staff will maintain the operations of the business office, including budget, payroll, and ongoing communications with employees and students.
Pandemic Influenza Plan Maintenance
College administration will:
• Annually review and update the Pandemic Preparation Plan.
• Periodically test elements of the Pandemic Preparation Plan.
• Meet as needed during times of heightened pandemic alerts/awareness.
The results of testing elements of the existing plan will be considered, and appropriate changes will be incorporated to improve effectiveness of the plan.
In the event of a pandemic situation, the college president or designee is responsible for convening meetings to discuss and plan.
General Risk Reduction Strategies
The PPC at Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College adopted a no-nonsense, common sense approach to identifying and implementing general risk reduction strategies to use prior to and during a pandemic crisis situation.
Upon notification that an outbreak of a viral pandemic occurring within the United States and/or Canada, the College will be prepared to do the following:
• Email and post information around the school, including entrances, bulletin boards, meeting rooms and restrooms, to educate employees, students, and visitors on how to stop the spread of the virus. Notices will contain information regarding hand hygiene, covering coughs and sneezes, and student spacing.
• Ensure adequate supplies of tissues, hand sanitizing gels, disinfectant hand soaps and disinfectant cleaning supplies are available for employees and students.
• Recommend that all shared areas such as desktops, tables, doorknobs, elevator buttons, stair rails, counter tops, copy machines, etc. be cleaned with a disinfectant at least daily.
• Encourage computer keyboards and mice to not be shared whenever possible. Shared computer keyboards and mice should be cleaned/disinfected between each user with treated wipes.
• Encourage telephones to not be shared whenever possible. Shared phones should be cleaned frequently by the users.
• Implement policies and procedures for containment measures (canceling events and other gatherings).
• Monitor the HVAC systems as per recommended guidelines.
• Suggest implementation of student spacing protocols
o Discourage prolonged congregation in hallways and other common areas
o Closure of TV, game and lounge room.
o Limit or eliminate group activities and interaction.
• Prepare to function with 33% or more of the workforce absent.
• Prepare for the potential of campus closing.
When developing the Pandemic Preparation Plan for Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College, members of the PPC identified key areas that became the core elements that this plan is organized around. Individually, the plan for each core element addresses primary issues and responsibilities for that area. Collectively, the core element plans combine to form a comprehensive plan that will guide the college through a pandemic crisis.
The core element areas include:
• Campus Housing
• Business Operations
• Information Technology
• Psychological First Aid
• Student Services
• Academic Functions
• Inter-Agency Connections
Specific strategies and plans for each core element are outlined in the following pages.
Three-deep staffing order:
Director of Public Information, President, Chief Academic Officer
• Prepare emergency contact list for all employees, held confidentially off-site by key staff as identified by the president.
• Prepare/acquire fact sheet (from CDC or MDH) about the pandemic and distribute to employees and students (employee meetings, in classes, post on campus.)
• Develop a page on the college website that contains pertinent pandemic information related to the college. Update information as necessary throughout the pandemic episode.
• Identify an Incoming Communication team and information gathering strategy.
• Identify and plan a single-source point of information Internal Communication contact strategy.
• Identify and plan a single-source point of information External Communication contact strategy.
• Share incoming, internal, and external communication strategies with employees.
• Implementation to be determined as a pandemic occurs, progresses, and passes.
• Activate internal and external communication strategies (president, director of public information, chief academic officer)
• Determine new messages and breaking information to distribute during pandemic (president, director of public information, chief academic officer)
• Follow existing crisis communications plan and strategies as needed (president, chief academic officer, director of public information)
• Share summary information after the pandemic passes (president, chief academic officer, director of public information)
Primary Communication Strategies
The initial receptors of pandemic information will be:
– college president
– chief student affairs officer
– chief academic officer
– director of public information
The college president, chief student affairs officer, chief academic officer, and director of public information will monitor information from national, state, tribal, and local agencies. Pertinent information will be distributed as determined by the president, chief student affairs officer, chief academic officer, and director of public information, or any combination thereof.
Communication resources routinely monitored will be websites of
– Minnesota Department of Public Health (http://www.health.state.mn.us)
– national Center for Disease Control (http://www.cdc.gov)
– individual/family resources (www.ready.gov)
– and Minnesota State Chancellor’s Office and system-wide communications.
Official communication to employees and students will be delivered via the single-source spokesperson (president) or back-up (chief student affairs officer, chief academic officer, director of public information) as necessary. Employees and students will be directed where to find up-to-date and reliable information. Primary communications will be via:
– college website
– campus email
– campus emergency notification system (used for emergencies only.)
All official external communication will be delivered via a single-source spokesperson (president) or back-up (chief student affairs officer, chief academic officer, director of public information) as necessary, this includes media briefings, press releases, and communication with coordinating agencies.
Campus interruption and closure notices follow the inclement weather procedure, including:
– KDLH TV, KBJR TV, WDIO TV, and KQDS TV
– WKLK FM/WKLK AM and KDAL AM
– Cloquet Pine Journal, Pine Knot News, and Duluth News Tribune
– FDLTCC website and related social media sites.
Three deep staffing order: Physical Plant Director, two General Maintenance Workers
In general, we will work towards achieving a reasonable and intuitive plan that will allow us to be prepared to continue to operate our facilities in a multifunctional way.
• At some point, this facility may be utilized by city, county or other governmental agencies which may require the building to operate in a stand-alone mode. This function has been completed.
• A campus representative has met and corresponded with the Carlton County Health Department.
• It is expected that Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College will work very closely with the Carlton County Health Department to educate the public in pandemic planning.
• The HVAC system and exterior lighting are currently controlled on campus and remotely for the main campus building and student housing.
• A list of emergency vendors is available for all facilities systems and will be included with final document. Vendors will be contacted to verify their intentions and capabilities.
• The utility suppliers will be contacted to determine what their capabilities and expectations are, and to develop a plan with them that will extend those services as long as possible. This includes city sewer and water, Minnesota Power-electricity, Aquila-natural gas.
• All housekeeping cleaning supplies, past and present are hospital grade and meet Joint Commission and Accreditation of Hospital Operations standards.
• Housekeeping staff will continue to receive training on infection control and universal precautions. Training will also include cleaning procedures for maximum infection control.
• Supplies of protective work wear will be available for use. (masks, latex gloves, etc.)
• The main campus building has an emergency generator set and emergency outlets are identified by an orange receptacle. Fuel oil tank will be filled and kept full.
• A par stock of maintenance and housekeeping supplies will be determined and kept on hand.
• A list of all key holders for all campus buildings has been made to assist in determining security levels during different stages of a pandemic. The key list is on a database in the Facilities Department. All keys are stored securely in one location for all campus buildings.
Four deep staffing order: Director of Housing, Dean of Student Services, Chief Financial Officer, Physical Plant Director
• Students living in the Housing Facility will be given information about the potential for a pandemic, and the procedures they will be asked to follow. (Orientation)
• This information will come in written form as part of in-processing to housing.
• This information will also come in lecture at the Housing Orientation.
• Students will sign-off on being given information. (during Housing intake process)
• Students will be asked to prepare for a pandemic by securing an alternate place to live if and when the campus housing facility shuts down.
• Students will be told to move out when the school closes down.
• Sweet grass and sage will be offered as a means of traditional treatment.
• Students will be informed there may not be some luxuries as air conditioning, Internet, mail.
• Housing will purchase non-perishable food items to keep on hand.
• Key fobs will be changed when travel ban is in place.
Three-deep staffing order: CFO, Business Office Account Technician and Account Clerk
Human Resources Functions: Chief Human Resources Officer, Account Technician and CFO
The primary function of the Business Office at Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College is to maintain a positive flow of cash for all of the financial functions associated with the College. The cash flow is accomplished through separation of duties as dictated by MN State Board Policy and monitored by Internal Audit. Payroll functions such as, ensuring of accurate monitoring and input of actual time worked and payments to employees.
Business Office Functions
Purchase Order input: this function is responsible for the input to Marketplace of all prospective purchases for the College. Source materials are approved by the CFO and routed to Purchasing. The CFO and an Account Technician back up this function.
Inventory: this function is responsible for maintaining a supply of everyday materials for the College. Inventory is controlled and ordered as needed. The function can be left without monitoring during urgent times.
Accounts Payable: this function is responsible for timely payment of invoices. Payments are made almost daily and are time sensitive (payment must be made within 30 days of receipt of items/services). The CFO and an Account Technician back up the function.
Receiving: this function is responsible for acceptance of delivered goods to the College. The goods are routed to appropriate personnel. Maintenance and information window personnel back up the function. Delivery of accepted goods will be made to the Receiving Clerk’s office.
Accounts Receivable: this function is responsible for the receipt of payment on student/customer debts. The function is shared among an Account Clerk and two Account Technicians. Past due accounts are handled by one Account Clerk and the function can be left without monitoring during urgent times.
Financial Aid Disbursement: this function is responsible for daily processing of authorized Financial Aid to students and their accounts. The CFO and Account Clerk back up the function.
Student Payroll: this function is responsible for the input, calculation, and disbursement of work study to student workers. The CFO and an Account Technician back up the function.
Miscellaneous Business Support Functions: these functions include but are not limited to maintaining asset records and reconciling of financial functions. The functions can be left without monitoring during urgent times. The CFO is ultimately responsible for these tasks and maintains knowledge of how to complete these functions.
Payroll Input: this function is responsible for reviewing, input, reconciliation, and monitoring of employee payroll. The function is vital to employee economic health during urgent times and has limited back up. The CFO, working with the Human Resources Director, will be able to process on campus payroll input. Payroll processing centers within MN State can assist, if needed.
Chief Information Officer
Three-deep staffing order: Chief Information Officer, Information Technology Specialist, MN State IT
The IT Department maintains several systems that are critical to the college. In the case of a campus emergency the IT Department’s priority will be to keep these systems operational.
· FDLTCC network functioning
· Student, Faculty and Staff email provided centrally through Office 365
· Software program access for bill paying and employee salary payment
· Web services for public communication
· Normal campus web and information servers
Reliance on outside vendors
Although the college is primarily reliant on Minnesota Power and the power grid, the campus has a diesel generator capable of running for a long period of time. This emergency power is available to keep our local campus network powered and running.
The campus is completely reliant on the State of Minnesota and MN IT for all external data connectivity.
The IT staff will work with Maintenance personnel to access the emergency power grid and determine which switches should be on the backup generator and whether or not it is feasible to have a continuous path from the servers to the router to maintain internal network operations in the case of a power failure. This is all dependent on outside data connection points having power.
IT will work to explore a secure way to make passwords available to critical servers and network equipment. Passwords must be safeguarded so that they are not accessible to anyone without a need.
Three-deep staff order: Dean of Student Services, Housing Director and Director of Public Information
Staff and operations of the various student services areas will operate to the best possible capacity before, during, and after an outbreak. In most cases, individual work assignments already have back-up staff and people cross-trained to accomplish tasks. Most tasks can be accomplished both on campus and remotely via online access.
Three-deep staff order: Registrar, Assistant Registrar, Retention Specialist
Financial Aid Office
Three-deep staff order: Financial Aid Director, Financial Aid Specialist, Business Office Account Technician
Three-deep staff order: Admissions Clerk, Admission Officer, Registrar
Back-up to the counselor/advisors: Damien Paulson, Nancy Olsen, Maggie Kazel, Kelly Bahen, Courtney Edwards-Johnston
Three-deep staff order: Donna Isham, Jodanna Wherley, Rose Kolodynski
Psychological First Aid
Recognizing that there will be anxiety regarding pandemic activities that may contribute to increased absenteeism and/or increased distress to staff, additional resources will be available by:
• Providing education and communication to employees and students
• Provide timely updates to employees and students as information is available,
• Communicate as necessary with local resources and public health services regarding the need to provide access to available support mechanisms (e.g., mental health, social services and faith-based resources).
Local and college counselors will be available to assist individuals and groups.
In the event of a pandemic that causes or necessitates widespread absence, the office of the vice president of academic affairs, under the direction of FDLTCC’s president and in cooperation with faculty leadership, will take the following actions:
1. Prioritize instructional continuity and proceed according to guidance from the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa, the Minnesota State system, the State of Minnesota, relevant regional and specialized accreditors, and U. S. Department of Education.
2. Report as required to the agencies listed above throughout the duration of the event and provide, minimally, weekly updates to faculty.
3. Prioritize the following goal: Continue instruction with minimal disruption for one or more weeks by optimizing the use of technology.
4. In collaboration with FDLTCC’s IT department, transition all courses capable of conversion to online or web-based video instruction.
5. Determine courses inappropriate for non-classroom instruction and either develop a continuation plan within the bounds of any physical limitations imposed by the circumstances or develop a plan for the completion of courses after the situation has normalized.
6. For clinicals, practica, internships, and research opportunities, work with sites in accordance with their procedures and guide students accordingly; if necessary, a plan will be developed for completion of such activities after the situation has normalized.
7. Identify students who have limited or no access to online or video technology. If circumstances allow and the campus remains open, campus technology will be made available. If circumstances do not allow, a plan will be developed that either provides students access to off-campus technology resources or that allows course completion after the situation has normalized.
In the event of faculty illness, the office of the vice president of academic affairs will
1. Monitor the situation,
2. Prepare a plan for temporary replacement if the condition is not ameliorated in two weeks, and
3. Hire a replacement.
If hiring a replacement is not possible, a plan will be developed for completion of the course after the situation has normalized.
Three-deep staffing order: Dean of Student Services, Vice President of Academics, President Physical Plant Director
The following is a list of plans that Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College will be prepared to have in place for pandemic planning purposes.
Currently, the college does not employ any security officials. During off hours, evenings, and weekends, the security of the campus is in the hands of the Cloquet Police Department, Carlton County Sheriff’s Department, Minnesota State Patrol, and Fond du Lac Tribal Police who are the active law enforcement agencies in the area. The custodial staff on campus in the evening or nighttime hours are responsible for the calling of local law enforcement when security incidences arise. Any employee should call 911 during regular business hours if appropriate.
Physical Areas of Concern
Specific areas of the campus that will be of concern if a quarantine happens are limited due to the size of FDLTCC. At best, the areas that need to be secured include the food service and vending areas, campus IT department, and records. The plan to secure these areas is a basic plan consisting of locking down multiple layers of access to areas that may be entered. The food service area has its own lock down area including gates.
The childcare area should be closed if the area is quarantined or pandemic occurs. The security of the campus residence hall and whether or not there would be students still living in the dormitory will be resolved based upon which scenario occurs. Campus security and control of the residence hall will be the responsibility of the director of housing and staff that is already in place (Resident Advisors, etc.) to control access to the building. In the event that the building is locked down, it will be the responsibility of housing and maintenance department staff to make sure that the building is secure.
At the present time the campus premises itself are secured by local law enforcement as indicated. If the premises were declared off limits in a quarantine situation, the majority of the campus can be locked. Camera systems that are in place provide limited security in the event persons attempt to gain access when the campus is closed. Other options to consider for limiting access would be barricades to be put up at both street entrances to the campus.
At the present time the campus has no dispatch center. The main meeting space of the campus would be in the administrative wing. This area is secured by locking devices.
Preliminary plans to protect the campus from encroachment from neighbors and non campus populations involve the locking down of the institution if it is in fact empty. We will work with the community to decide if any of the facilities on campus would want to be utilized by local law enforcement, social services, or whoever may have specific needs and isolation needed to happen.
Water is available throughout the campus through the municipal water system of the City of Cloquet. There are water stations in the building with potable water that are from an outside vendor. Some quantities of bottled water should be purchased. This can be done in a relatively short period of time.
Campus officials have talked with local authorities in an attempt to understand the plans and limitations of local police and fire and emergency services. As indicated earlier, it is our belief that if a pandemic scenario occurred, the help from the local law enforcement or public agencies would be limited at best. The college may be a focal point in the community as they attempt to put together their plans as to where large groups of individuals could assemble.
In conclusion, in the event that an influenza pandemic crisis occurred, security issues on this campus are minimal and would only come into effect if there were some panic or alarm on campus concerning persons safety or quarantine situations.
Managing Illness in Staff, Students or Visitors
FDLTCC Administration will:
• Inform employees regarding symptoms of infectious disease.
• Inform students regarding symptoms of infectious disease.
• Provide guidelines to employees and parents/students for staying home when ill and when they may return to the college.
• Faculty and staff will be asked to report any observations of unusual increases of illness and absenteeism in students or staff to college administration.
• In coordination with local health officials, college administration will determine if an infectious disease outbreak is present on campus based observation and/or report of symptoms and illness by faculty, staff, administration, students, or visitors to campus and report such suspected disease outbreak to Carlton County Public health as necessary.
• If a person becomes ill, or if someone observes that another person is exhibiting symptoms of infectious disease at work/school the person will be advised to leave FDLTCC facilities and when they may be able to return as per Center for Disease Control or Minnesota Department of Health recommendation. for the suspected infectious disease.
• Ill persons will be encouraged to seek medical care as Center for Disease Control or Minnesota Department of Health recommendation.
Examples of specific strategies
• Education on handwashing, coughing and sneezing hygiene, social distancing, use of sanitizers, and disinfectants.
• Hand sanitizer available in each classroom and workstation.
• Antiviral disinfectants available to maintenance workers.
• Shut down drinking fountains, implement water coolers as directed by Center for Disease Control or Minnesota Department of Health recommendation.
• Information will be distributed via campus postings, website, and broadcast email messages.
Public health officials will administer available vaccine and will inform colleges and the public on how any available vaccine will be used.
• FDLTCC will provide opportunities to employees for annual seasonal influenza vaccines
The Minnesota Public Safety Department, federal Homeland Security and Emergency Management, and the Center for Disease Control will provide advice on priority groups for pandemic influenza immunization.
Federal, State and Local Planning for Pandemic Influenza
Pandemic situations will take federal, state and local resources to respond. Roles vary at each level, with general guidance provided at the federal level with detailed operational plans at the state and local levels.
The federal government provides general guidance and laboratory support to states, supports vaccine research and conducts national and international disease surveillance activities. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services webpage on pandemic influenza can be found at:
The state reviews federal guidance and develops plans for statewide implementation. The Minnesota Department of Health webpage can be found at: https://www.health.state.mn.us/index.html
Local (Carlton County/City of Cloquet) Role
The Cloquet/Carlton Emergency Operations Plan is an all hazards plan which addresses the response to all types of emergencies, from tornados to terrorism. The EOP includes key components such as emergency communications and managing mass fatalities. In addition, the emergency preparedness work completed by Carlton County Public Health Services is directly applicable to pandemic planning and response and is consistent with the supplemental areas in the US Department of Health and Human Services plan. These areas include:
• Disease surveillance.
• Distribution of limited supplies of antiviral drugs and flu vaccine.
• Public information strategies including ways to reach non English speaking communities.
• Assuring that basic necessities are provided to those who may be quarantined at home.